This is a version of a Type I & Type II Technologies presentation from 2011, presented at a local educational technology conference. So much has changed since then, but the purposes of technology in the classroom are increasingly important and worthy of continued discussion.


The narrative throughout these slides centers around the purposes which different technologies serve for education, more specifically teachers and students. Here are my notes:

Slide 2 – Based on Maddux and Johnson (2006), technology used in the classroom can be divided into Type I and Type II technologies.
Examples of Type I technologies: email, word processing programs, presentation programs, projectors, file sharing programs. There is nothing wrong with Type I technology.
Examples of Type II technologies: podcasting, social media, multimedia presentations. Type II technologies are not “better,” but have potential to impact student achievement.

Slide 3 – The difference between receiving training on something versus professional development on a software or device is often the difference between a Type I and a Type II type of technology.
That is important because elevated teacher practice often results from professional development over just training. And student achievement depends on elevated teacher practice. For example teachers train on a student information system, but usually receive professional development on instructional tools (LMS).

Slide 4 – Teacher is using the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) to do the same thing she could do on an overhead projector, chart paper, etc. Type I as she is able to store, replicate the work.

Slide 5 – Student is doing the same thing he may have done with the paper worksheet on an online chart.  The teacher can record, store, replicate this easie, so this is a Type I technology.
Some people think because the student is touching the technology it is a better use of technology; this does not reach the level of transforming the experience for the student as it is still teacher contained, limited audience, and replaces the teacher interaction/content.
{Cost-wise, this is also an expensive use of technology for only one teacher or one to a few students to use at one time.}

Slide 6 – Which types of digital activities reach the level of Type II technologies for students? Introduce in the (revised 2001) Bloom’s Taxonomy hierarchy and correlate with types of digital activities.

Slide 7 – Once a teacher knows which activities s/he wants to offer to students, it is appropriate to identify current tools which accomplish the activity/activities.
The order is important, identify what the teacher wants to DO first. It is crucial to identify the TOOL after the activity is identified.

Slide 8 – This is tool which both teachers and student have access to now. Type I technology if used to: read online/downloaded content, email/text/call parents, take notes/pictures. Type II technology if used to: create movies, audio interviews, pics to web, sharing on social media.


I augmented the message to administrators to include the ways they can support their teachers. Administrators need to understand, share, and support the vision. But I step through the presentation, because this is a new way to sort technology for some administrators – and they need that vision!


Presentation Credits:

Teacher at IWBStudent at IWB, iPhone, icons

Maddux, C., & Johnson, L. (2006). Information technology, Type II Classroom integration, and the limited infrastructure in schools. Computers in the Schools, 22(3-4), 1-5.